Adam Smith (1723-1790), explained why some countries were rich while others were poor in his 1776 seminal book The Wealth of Nations. Since Smith, and despite efforts by economists and government to explain differences between wealthy and poor nations, the wealth gap continues to widen. Several factors may determine to some degree the wealth of a nation. These include, but are not limited to decentralization, corruption, democracy, education, trade, and institutions.
Adam Smith and Lessons on Trade Policy
Although Adam Smith lived in the 18th century, the father of modern economics still has much to teach the world today. Smith's world famous book Wealth of Nations is arguably the most important piece on economics in history. It greatly influenced other scholars, thinkers, and eventually policymakers away from the then-dominant global policy of mercantilism toward freer trade.
Trade Liberalization vs. Protectionism: Pros & Cons
Globalization has always instigated debate and disagreement. It’s blamed for the decay of state sovereignty, the rise of transnational organized crime and economic degradation. It’s constantly used as a scapegoat by politicians and world leaders who want to justify cases of economic and social race to the bottom phenomena in their respective nations, and it’s generally used as an easy excuse to defend failures and downsides. Regardless of these accusations, however, it’s important to note that the benefits of globalization and liberalization vastly overshadow their discontents, especially in the context of trade and economic growth.
How Useful Are Tariffs?
In an increasingly globalized market, some governments are becoming much more concerned with three of the main consequences of expanding international trade. The first is that domestic companies are forced to grapple with not only domestic competitors, but also foreign competitors. Second is the growing dependence on foreign firms for important goods. Finally, the existence of trade deficits (higher imports than exports) which are often seen as “unfair”. In order to address these concerns, a growing number of countries are implementing tariffs on their imports, taxing certain classes of goods originating from specified countries.